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The Spooky Secret Behind Artificial Intelligence’s Incredible Power

Published on October 11, 2016 by   ·   No Comments
The Spooky Secret Behind Artificial Intelligence's Incredible Power

 

 

 

 

 

LiveScience

Spookily powerful artificial intelligence (AI) systems may work so well because their structure exploits the fundamental laws of the universe, new researchsuggests.

The new findings may help answer a longstanding mystery about a class of artificial intelligence that employ a strategy called deep learning. These deep learning or deep neural network programs, as they’re called, are algorithms that have many layers in which lower-level calculations feed into higher ones. Deep neural networks often perform astonishingly well at solving problems as complex as beating the world’s best player of the strategy board game Go or classifying cat photos, yet know one fully understood why.

It turns out, one reason may be that they are tapping into the very special properties of the physical world, said Max Tegmark, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and a co-author of the new research.

The laws of physics only present this “very special class of problems” — the problems that AI shines at solving, Tegmark told Live Science. “This tiny fraction of the problems that physics makes us care about and the tiny fraction of problems that neural networks can solve are more or less the same,” he said. [Super-Intelligent Machines: 7 Robotic Futures]

Deep learning

Last year, AI accomplished a task many people thought impossible: DeepMind, Google’s deep learning AI system, defeated the world’s best Go player after trouncing the European Go champion. The feat stunned the world because the number of potential Go moves exceeds the number of atoms in the universe, and past Go-playing robots performed only as well as a mediocre human player.

But even more astonishing than DeepMind’s utter rout of its opponents was how it accomplished the task.

“The big mystery behind neural networks is why they work so well,” said study co-author Henry Lin, a physicist at Harvard University. “Almost every problem we throw at them, they crack.”

For instance, DeepMind was not explicitly taught Go strategy and was not trained to recognize classic sequences of moves. Instead, it simply “watched” millions of games, and then played many, many more against itself and other players.

Like newborn babies, these deep-learning algorithms start out “clueless,” yet typically outperform other AI algorithms that are given some of the rules of the game in advance, Tegmark said.

Another long-held mystery is why these deep networks are so much better than so-called shallow ones, which contain as little as one layer, Tegmark said. Deep networks have a hierarchy and look a bit like connections between neurons in the brain, with lower-level data from many neurons feeding into another “higher” group of neurons, repeated over many layers. In a similar way, deep layers of these neural networks make some calculations, and then feed those results to a higher layer of the program, and so on, he said.

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